INFERTILITY IN MALES

INFERTILITY IN MALES

Infertility is the inability to produce offspring. Infertility occurs due to various factors such as an immature reproductive system, defective reproductive system, and endocrine disorders. Here is the quick glance to reasons that lead to male infertility. – INFERTILITY IN MALES

CAUSES:

  1. DECREASED SPERM COUNT- (OLIGOZOOSPERMIA)

Normal sperm count in a male is about 100-150 million/mL of semen. Infertility occurs when the sperm count decreases below 20 million/mL of semen. The reason might be disruption in the functioning or acute infection in testis.

  1. ABNORMAL SPERMS

Sometimes, the sperm count may be normal, but the structure is abnormal. The sperms may be without tail and non-motile or with two heads or with abnormal head. When large numbers of abnormal sperms are produced, infertility occurs.

  1. OBSTRUCTION OF REPRODUCTIVE TRACTS:

Sometimes sperm can be blocked. Repeated infections, surgery (such as vasectomy), swelling, or developmental defects can cause a blockage. Any part of the male reproductive tract can be blocked. With a blockage, sperm from the testicles can’t leave the body during ejaculation.

  1. TRAUMA:

Research shows that the likelihood of pregnancy may be lower if a male partner has severe stress. In addition, depression in men may cause sexual dysfunction due to reduced libido, erectile dysfunction, or delayed or inhibited ejaculation.

  1. MUMPS:

Mumps is a viral infection that principally affects the parotid glands. However, it can also affect the testicles, giving rise to a condition called orchitis, which means inflammation of the testicle. If orchitis occurs before puberty fertility is usually unaffected but, orchitis is the most common complication of mumps in post-pubertal men leading to infertility in men.

  1. DRUG ABUSE:

Anabolic steroids taken to stimulate muscle strength and growth can cause the testicles to shrink and sperm production to decrease. The use of cocaine or marijuana may temporarily reduce the number and quality of your sperm as well. – INFERTILITY IN MALES

  1. ALCOHOLISM:

Drinking alcohol can lower testosterone levels, cause erectile dysfunction, and decrease sperm production. In men, heavy drinking affects fertility by lowering testosterone levels, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone, and raising estrogen levels, which reduce sperm production. Liver disease caused by excessive drinking also may lead to fertility problems.

  1. GENETIC DISORDERS:

In some cases, there are genetic defects that cause his sperm to be abnormal. Some common genetic causes of male infertility are- Klinefelter Syndrome, Cystic Fibrosis Gene Mutation, Y Chromosome Microdeletions.

  1. DISORDERS OF PITUITARY, THYROID, and PANCREAS

Any condition that lowers LH and FSH levels, such as a pituitary tumor, can result in low or no sperm production and low blood testosterone levels.

An underactive thyroid can lead to male infertility. Studies show that low thyroid hormone levels in men can cause poor semen quality, low sperm count, reduced testicular function, erectile dysfunction, and a drop in libido.

In healthy people, the pancreas (a small gland in the body) releases the hormone insulin to control blood sugar levels after eating a meal. A recent study of men attending a fertility clinic also found that men suspected of pre-diabetes (abnormally high blood sugars) had higher levels of damage to sperm DNA, were more likely to have unexplained azoospermia (no sperm in the ejaculate) and had lower testosterone levels and more disruption of other fertility hormones, compared to men attending the clinic without clinical signs of pre-diabetes.

  1. UNDESCENDED TESTICLES

In some males, during fetal development one or both testicles fail to descend from the abdomen into the sac that normally contains the testicles (scrotum). Decreased fertility is more likely in men who have had this condition.

  1. WEIGHT

Obesity can impair fertility in several ways, including directly impacting sperm themselves as well as by causing hormone changes that reduce male fertility. There is now emerging evidence that male obesity impacts negatively on male reproductive potential by reducing sperm quality.

Divya

M. Sc. Gold Medalist

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