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When the body does not produce enough insulin or does not use it properly, pre-diabetes and then Type 2 diabetes are likely to develop. In other words; Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus individuals develop hyperglycemia gradually due to progressive loss of insulin secretion with insulin resistance frequently being the underlying cause. It is often not severe enough in the early stages for the person to notice any of the classic symptoms of diabetes hence type T2DM individuals may or may not experience the classic symptoms of uncontrolled diabetes and they are not prone to develop ketoacidosis except during times of severe stress.


  1. Polydipsia: Abnormally great thirst
  2. Polyuria: Production of abnormally large volumes of dilute urine.
  3. Blurry vision: High blood sugar causes the lens of the eye to swell, which changes your ability to see
  4. Being cranky: Changes in blood sugar levels can affect a person’s mood and mental status. When blood sugar returns to a normal range, these symptoms often resolve. Fluctuations in blood glucose can result in rapid mood changes, including low mood and irritability.
  5. Tingling or numbness in your hands or feet
  6. Fatigue/feeling worn out: It results due to the body’s inability to get glucose from the blood into cells to meet our energy needs.
  7. Hunger: In uncontrolled diabetes where blood glucose levels remain abnormally high (hyperglycemia ), glucose from the blood cannot enter the cells – due to either a lack of insulin or insulin resistance – so the body can’t convert the food you eat into energy. This lack of energy causes an increase in hunger.
  8. Weight loss without trying: Insufficient insulin prevents the body from getting glucose from the blood into the body’s cells to use as energy. When this occurs, the body starts burning fat and muscle for energy, causing a reduction in overall body weight.
  9. Getting more infections: People with diabetes are more susceptible to developing infections, as high blood sugar levels can weaken the patient’s immune system defenses. In addition, some diabetes-related health issues, such as nerve damage and reduced blood flow to the extremities, increase the body’s vulnerability to infection.
  10. Acanthosis Nigricans: Dark rashes around your neck or armpits (called acanthosis nigricans) that are often a sign of insulin resistance. A skin condition characterized by dark, velvety patches in body folds and creases Acanthosis nigricans typically occurs in people who are obese or have diabetes.

Management of Type 2 diabetes

Managing type 2 diabetes includes a mix of lifestyle changes and medication.

Lifestyle changes

It’s a relief to know that, you may be able to reach your target blood sugar levels with diet and exercise alone.

Dietary Management: A huge part of managing type 2 diabetes is developing a healthy diet. You need to eat something sustainable that helps you feel better and still makes you feel happy and fed. Remember, it’s a process. Work to find helpful tips and diet plans that best suit your lifestyle—and how you can make your nutritional intake work the hardest for you. A registered dietitian may help you to control your sugar levels through diet, which plays a pivotal role on an everyday basis. Also, it’s all about finding the right balance that works for you.

CARBOHYDRATES: Knowing what kind and how many carbs to eat is important for managing diabetes. Eating too many carbs can raise your blood glucose too high. Eating too little carbohydrate can also be harmful because your blood glucose may drop too low, especially if you take medicines to help manage your blood sugar. Balance is the key!

There are three main types of carbohydrates in food—

  1. Starches,
  2. Sugar and
  3. Fiber

Choose a more balanced nutrient mix of carbs, protein, and fat. The goal is to choose carbs that are nutrient-dense, which means they are rich in fiber, vitamins, and minerals, and low in added sugars, sodium, and unhealthy fats.

PROTEINS: A diet high in protein (10-35% of total intake) is good for health of diabetics because it supplies the essential amino acids for tissue repair. It does not raise blood sugar as carbohydrates and not as high as fats in calories.

FAT: Fat content in the diet should be 15-25% of total calories and high in PUFA’s.

VITAMINS AND MINERALS: Diet rich in all vitamins particularly C and E and antioxidants in fruits and vegetables and in minerals magnesium and zinc are encouraged. Sodium intake should be moderate.

DIETARY FIBRE: High fiber promotes:
  1. Weight loss
  2. Increases satiety
  3. Delays gastric emptying
  4. Takes longer to eat.

Easy to understand guidelines:

  1. The patient should maintain body weight 10% lower than that of ideal body weight. You can calculate your ideal body weight (IBW) by Height (in cm) – 100 = IBW (in kg)
  1. The total caloric intake is more important than the exact proportions of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat.
  2. Simple sugars should be restricted.
  3. Dietary intake should be 45-60% of carbohydrates, 10-35% from proteins and 15-25% from fat.
  4. A mixture of oils is preferred than a single oil.
  5. Patients should avoid fasting and feasting.
  6. Junks should be avoided.
  7. Increase intake of whole grains, legumes and restrict fat, especially saturated fats.

Exercise. It does wonders in the management of diabetes. Try to get 30 to 60 minutes of physical activity every day. You can walk, bike, swim, or do anything else that gets your heart rate up. Pair that with strength training, like yoga or weightlifting. If you take a medication that lowers your blood sugar, you might need a snack before a workout.

Physical activity encourages:

  1. Utilization of oxygen to provide energy to muscles.
  2. Makes pumping of heart efficient.
  3. Blood vessels open up to accommodate increased activity of the heart.
  4. Best way to vent out mood changes and manage stress.

 Medications: If dietary measures alone are inadequate, the patient is put on medications called Oral  Hypoglycemic Drugs (OHD’s). Middle and poorer income group which account for the majority of diabetic patients, OHD’s are often prescribes followed by diet, exercise, and lastly by insulin.


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